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2022年09月9日

【远古黑科技】系列5

“挂”在断崖绝壁的寺庙,
你敢去吗?

看过《笑傲江湖》的武侠小说迷,可记得里头提过悬空寺?中国真有此寺,而且玄妙特点誉满古今中外建筑史。

悬空寺不是光有虚名,她真的是悬空“挂”在斷崖絕壁间。2010年,是美国《时代》杂志评点世界十大最奇险建筑之一。

位于中国山西省北岳恒山的金龙峡山腰,前人以:“面对恒山,背倚翠屏;上载危岩,下临深谷“来形容她的奇特、惊险、巧思和奥秘。

悬空寺凌空而建,又和自然景观相互辉映,像镶嵌在峭壁间的浮雕。
承重的是隐藏在栈道上的横梁,而不是在外张扬的立柱。

飞架栈道连接 脚下是百米深渊

是的,整座木结构的寺庙,基本上是悬空“挂”在陡峭断崖上;说奇特和惊险,因为抬头是峭壁,往下看是深渊、栈道摇摇晃晃,还会发出“吱吱”声响。

可是这间寺却一直“挂”了1500年,如此鬼斧神工之作,不得不让人佩服古人的巧思,但当中的奥秘却是过年才被解开。

悬空寺各大殿、宇、楼、阁,都是单靠一条10米的飞架栈道相通,而殿和栈道都是在直面百米的的悬崖。

要贯游各殿各阁,必须踏上栈道,但没有人不是屏住呼吸踏上去的,因为楼台和栈道之下就是百米深渊。

悬空寺 40间大小的殿、楼、阁之间都是中断的峭壁,只靠栈道连接起来。
殿楼屋檐和屋顶形态丰富多姿,尽显传统建筑美学。

“壮观”,写自李白

如果从下抬头仰望凌空的栈道,看似只有数条立木和横木支撑着。

如此奇景,就连诗仙李白也惊呆;史记,李白西元735出游至此,忍不住在崖壁写下“壮观”2个大字。

明崇祯6年,大旅行家徐霞客到此一游,赞之为“天下巨观”,之后便在游记写下 “伊阙双峙,五夷九曲不及比拟也”来形容悬空寺的险峻形势。

寺殿楼阁都是顺着山壁起伏而建,空间有限,殿前的走道也很狭窄。

力学的奥妙

根据专家之后的解剖,悬空寺完美体现了古人巧思和对力学的掌握;廊栏左右紧联,彼此借力连接。

栈道悬挂的秘密在于下面的横樑,这种半插飞樑主要是把粗壮的木条打横半插进崖上凿出的窟内,一半外露的明柱搭上木板变成栈道,另一半插在峭壁内,就是借助岩石暗托住整个栈道。

这些悬臂梁在当地叫“铁扁担”,选用的是当地特产的铁杉木,同时经桐油浸泡,达到防腐防虫的作用。

不只如此,研究还发现,横樑打入山体前会先打上三角楔子,横梁打进去时被楔子撑开,功能就像现在的膨胀螺栓,起到加固的作用,几乎和山体融为一体。

悬空寺建在峡谷一处的天然凹槽,不怕风吹雨打,也不怕落石击中。

 题外话公输天巧,形态多姿

远眺,悬空寺就像是镶嵌在万仞峭壁间的浮雕,玲珑剔透,就像是九天宫阙的奇景。

悬空寺高23公尺,由4层阁楼组成。

阁楼内外别洞天,小小的152平方公尺,却有大小殿宇楼阁40间,除了南楼和北楼,还有钟鼓楼、关帝庙、纯阳宫、观音殿等。

建筑群布局紧凑、错落有致,分布对称中有变化。

横梁上可见斗拱结构、抬梁结构、平顶结构等,达到平衡和抗震作用。
到此一游的李白都忍不住要提字“壮观”,来赞叹悬空寺的险、奇、巧、奥。

与周边浑然相成

连接的栈道迂回曲折,顺崖壁凹凸之势凌空而建,和周遭自然景观相互辉映,虚实相生。

除了建筑本身令人讚叹,寺内的建筑构造也很有特色,屋檐形态丰富多姿,单檐、重檐、三层檐等同时存在,屋顶则有戗脊、贫脊、正脊、垂脊4种。

殿宇和楼阁可见斗拱结构、抬梁结构、平顶结构等。

这些建设和峭壁岩石、翠林有趣地层迭,形成一种”窟连殿,殿连楼”的独特风格,既体现独有的传统建筑风格,又融合了园林艺术蔚为奇观。

栈道石壁上刻有“公输天巧”,来赞赏悬空寺的工师造艺,如同鲁班那样巧夺天工的匠师。

随手可摸到的立柱,其实很多并不受力。

题外话佛道儒同

悬空寺是中国唯一集佛、道、儒三教于一身的寺庙,三教殿建在寺院的最高处,道教李耳、佛教释迦牟尼、儒教孔子3位教主,共同安坐同一个殿中。

根据《恒山志》记载,悬空寺原名“玄空寺”,”玄”取自道家、”空”源自佛家。

在北魏晚期太和十五年(西元491年)开始建设,据记载,之后在后金、元、明、清各代都经过修缮。

建筑群错落有致,和栈道峭壁形成“窟连殿,殿连楼”的独特风格。

寇谦之遗训?

但到底是谁建设?各有不同说法。

有说是由北魏的了然和尚所建,又有说是源自北魏天师道长寇谦之(公元365~488年)仙逝前留下遗训。

据说,寇谦之离世前告诉弟子,自己离开之后要选择一处地方修建一座上延宵客,下绝嚣浮的空中寺院。

他离开后,弟子们开始筹资选址,并精心设计寺院构图,经过众多弟子合力43年,寺院才落成。

和尚或道人都好,根据专家近们解剖,可以确定兴建者必定是掌握科学真知的人。

入夜点上华灯的悬空寺,如同九天宫阙。

题外话】承重的竟不是立柱!

真正制造悬空寺轻飘飘的是27根悬臂梁,立柱上下一体,而且还有“弹性”,走在栈道上,用手轻推立柱,它还会晃动。

但后来发现,这些立柱是之后加上去的,“装饰”功能多过主要承重。

另外,为了确保安全,古人还用9根铁链将悬崖和祖庙的中心连接起来,彼此牢牢地固定在一起。

远眺寺院,加强了一种被9根铁链拴着,离地悬挂半空的错觉。

落石也击不中!

可能有人会问千年来无数场的天灾,甚至是超级大地震,悬空寺建在半山腰,总会有机会被翻滚下来的落石击中,她又如何避过?

这又是古人令人折服之处,悬空寺位于2座山环抱的峡谷,中间被河水侵蚀形成一个天然凹槽,落石顺著抛物线跌落,但都不会砸到她。

悬空寺所依靠的翠屏峰,顶峰有个突出的部份,刚好可为悬空寺挡雨。

资料来源:综合媒体&网上资料

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    All trademarks, service marks and logos displayed in this web site are the property of property.eNanyang.my and/or their respective third-party proprietors as identified in the web site. Unless the prior written consent of property.eNanyang.my or the relevant third-party proprietor of any trademarks, service marks or logos appearing on the web site has been obtained, no license or right is granted to any party accessing this web site to use, download, reproduce, copy or modify such trademarks, service marks or logos. Similarly, unless the prior written consent of property.eNanyang.my or the relevant proprietor has been obtained, no such trade mark, service mark or logo may be used as a link or to mark any link to the property.eNanyang.my web site or any other site. Just as property.eNanyang.my requires users to respect our copyrights, and those of our affiliates and partners, we respect the copyrights of others. If you believe in good faith that your copyrighted work has been reproduced on our site without authorisation in a way that constitutes copyright infringement, you may notify our designated copyright agent either by mail to Nanyang Siang Pau Sdn Bhd, No. 1, Jalan SS 7/2, 47301 Petaling Jaya, Selangor, Malaysia or by email to prop@eNanyang.my.

    This site is available “as is” and “as available” basis. We do not warrant that this service will be uninterrupted or error-free. There may be delays, omissions, interruptions and inaccuracies in the news, information or other materials available through this web site. We are not responsible for the availability or content of other services that may be linked to this web site. We do not make any warranties, express or implied, including without limitation, those of merchant quality and fitness for a particular purpose, with respect to this web site or any information or services that are available or advertised or sold through this web site. We do not make any representations, nor do we endorse the accuracy, completeness, timeliness or reliability of any advice, opinion, statement or other material or database displayed, uploaded or distributed in this web site or available through links in this web site. We reserve the right to correct any errors or omissions in this web site. Although we intend to take reasonable steps to prevent the introduction of viruses, worms, “Trojan horses” or other destructive materials to this web site, we do not guarantee or warrant that the materials that may be downloaded from this web site do not contain such destructive features. We are not liable for any damages or harm attributable to such features. If you rely on this information and any materials available through this web site, you do so solely at your own risk. Without derogation of the above and/or terms and conditions of the applicable agreements governing all the information and services of the web site, reasonable measures shall be taken by property.eNanyang.my to ensure the accuracy and validity of all information relating to transactions of products and services of related web site.

    property.eNanyang.my shall not be liable for any loss or damages howsoever arising whether in contract, tort, negligence, strict liability or any other basis, including without limitation any damages, loss or expense, direct, indirect, special, or consequential damage, punitive damages or economic loss arising from or in connection with: (1) any access, use or the inability to access or use this website, or reliance on the materials and/or any information in this web site; (2) any system, server or connection failure, error, omission, interruption, delay in transmission, or computer virus; and (3) any use of or access to any other sites linked to this web site. Any hyperlinks to any other websites are not an endorsement or verification of such web sites and such web sites should only be accessed at the user’s own risks. This exclusion clause shall take effect to the fullest extent permitted by law.

    Links from or to the web sites outside of property.eNanyang.my are meant for convenience only. This web site does not investigate, verify, monitor, or endorse the content, accuracy, opinions expressed and other links (if any) provided by such resources as such linked web sites are owned and operated by third parties and are not under the control of property.eNanyang.my. Therefore, we shall not be responsible and makes no warranties in respect of the contents of those web sites, the third parties named therein or their products and services. Furthermore, the links provided in this web site to other shall not be considered an endorsement or verification or approval of such linked web sites of the contents therein. Linking to any other site is at your sole risk and property.eNanyang.my will not be responsible or liable for any damages in connection with linking. It is advisable for you to read the privacy policy statements any web sites which are linked to this web site.

    You will on demand indemnify and keep indemnified property.eNanyang.my from all liabilities, claims, losses and expenses, including any legal fees that may be incurred by property.eNanyang.my in connection with or arising from (1) your use or misuse of this web site and the services provided herein, or (2) your breach of these terms and conditions howsoever occasioned, or (3) any intellectual property right or proprietary right infringement claim made by a third party against property.eNanyang.my in connection with your use of this web site.


    property.eNanyang.my reserves the right to terminate and/or suspend your access and/or your use of this web site at any time, for any reason. In particular, and without limitation, we may terminate and/or suspend your access should you violate any of these terms and conditions, or violate the rights of property.eNanyang.my of any other user or any third party.

    The failure of property.eNanyang.my to exercise or enforce any right or provision of these terms and conditions shall not constitute a waiver of such right or provision. If any part of these terms and conditions is determined to be invalid or unenforceable pursuant to applicable law, then the invalid and unenforceable provision will be deemed superseded by a valid, enforceable provision that most clearly matches the intent of the original provision and the remainder of the other provisions of the terms and conditions shall continue in full force and effect. All rights not expressly granted herein are reserved.

    These terms and conditions are governed by and are to be construed in accordance with the laws of Malaysia. By accessing this web site and/or using the services provided herein by property.eNanyang.my, you hereby agree to submit to the non-exclusive jurisdiction of the Malaysian courts in Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia in all disputes arising out of or relating to the use of this web site.

    私隐政策声明

      You agree that Nanyang Press Holdings Berhad and its subsidiaries (“Nanyang Group”) may process, use, disclose and/or retain your personal information in accordance with our Privacy Policy as long as necessary for the fulfillment of the Purposes stated herein.

      In order for us to provide our products and/or services to you in the most efficient and effective manner, we need to collect relevant personal information from you. The personal information collected by us may include, but not limited to, the followings: –

      • Name;
      • Address;
      • Phone Number;
      • Fax Number;
      • Date of Birth;
      • Email Address;
      • Gender;
      • Bank Information;
      • Identity Card Number; or
      • Credit Card Information

      Personal Information that you provide to us will be Processed (as defined in PDPA 2010) for the following purposes: –

      • to process your application and/or request for our products and/or services;
      • to complete transactions with you, manage and verify your membership of our customer loyalty scheme where applicable;
      • to provide you with the products and/or services you have requested or subscribed;
      • to understand and analyse our sales, your needs and preferences;
      • to develop, enhance, market and provide products and services to meet your needs;
      • to conduct marketing activities;
      • to direct market to you;
      • to determine how we can improve our services to you;
      • to process exchanges or product returns;
      • to process payments to you;
      • to enable you to participate in promotions and contests;
      • to investigate and resolve any service issues;
      • to keep in contact with you and better manage any business relationship we have with you;
      • to send you updates on our products, news and events, promotions and rewards, special privileges and initiatives of Nanyang Group, our partners and advertisers;
      • for debt collection purposes;
      • to respond to requests or complaints;
      • for future business opportunities and transactions;
      • for audit, compliance and risk management purposes;
      • to meet legal and regulatory requirements; or
      • for all other purposes incidental and associated with any of the above;
      collectively known as the “Purposes”.<

      Nanyang Group will treat all information we hold about you as private and confidential. In order to provide our products and/or services to you, we may need to disclose your personal information to the following third parties: –

      1. law enforcement agencies;
      2. government agencies;
      3. companies or individuals that act as our agents, contractors, service providers and/or professional advisers;
      4. any financial institution and charge or credit card issuing companies with which you have or propose to have dealings;
      5. our business associates in or outside Malaysia;
      6. to share the information with trusted business partners for the provision of their services
      7. any parties to whom you have given us your express or implied consent to disclose; or
      8. to such other parties as may be permitted under the laws of Malaysia.

      You may contact us at the following contact points should you have any queries regarding this Privacy Policy or you wish to have inaccurate information of you to be corrected: –

      Designation: Data Privacy Officer
      Telephone: 03-7872 6921
      Fax: 03-7872 6994
      Email: pdpa@nanyang.com.my
      Address :1, Jalan SS 7/2, 47301 Petaling Jaya, Selangor

      We will keep this Privacy Policy under regular review and we may amend this Privacy Policy from time to time without prior notice. The updated version shall apply and supersede all previous versions. It is advisable that you check this Privacy Policy on a regular basis.

      This notice was updated: 5th February 2014

      © 南洋商报有限公司版权所有 | Copyright Nanyang Siang Pau Sdn. Bhd.(6164-V)

      电邮:prop@eNanyang.my

      地址: No. 1, Jalan SS 7/2, 47301 Petaling Jaya, Selangor Darul Ehsan, Malaysia

      电话: +603-7872 6888

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        私隐政策声明

          You agree that Nanyang Press Holdings Berhad and its subsidiaries (“Nanyang Group”) may process, use, disclose and/or retain your personal information in accordance with our Privacy Policy as long as necessary for the fulfillment of the Purposes stated herein.

          In order for us to provide our products and/or services to you in the most efficient and effective manner, we need to collect relevant personal information from you. The personal information collected by us may include, but not limited to, the followings: –

          • Name;
          • Address;
          • Phone Number;
          • Fax Number;
          • Date of Birth;
          • Email Address;
          • Gender;
          • Bank Information;
          • Identity Card Number; or
          • Credit Card Information

          Personal Information that you provide to us will be Processed (as defined in PDPA 2010) for the following purposes: –

          • to process your application and/or request for our products and/or services;
          • to complete transactions with you, manage and verify your membership of our customer loyalty scheme where applicable;
          • to provide you with the products and/or services you have requested or subscribed;
          • to understand and analyse our sales, your needs and preferences;
          • to develop, enhance, market and provide products and services to meet your needs;
          • to conduct marketing activities;
          • to direct market to you;
          • to determine how we can improve our services to you;
          • to process exchanges or product returns;
          • to process payments to you;
          • to enable you to participate in promotions and contests;
          • to investigate and resolve any service issues;
          • to keep in contact with you and better manage any business relationship we have with you;
          • to send you updates on our products, news and events, promotions and rewards, special privileges and initiatives of Nanyang Group, our partners and advertisers;
          • for debt collection purposes;
          • to respond to requests or complaints;
          • for future business opportunities and transactions;
          • for audit, compliance and risk management purposes;
          • to meet legal and regulatory requirements; or
          • for all other purposes incidental and associated with any of the above;
          collectively known as the “Purposes”.<

          Nanyang Group will treat all information we hold about you as private and confidential. In order to provide our products and/or services to you, we may need to disclose your personal information to the following third parties: –

          1. law enforcement agencies;
          2. government agencies;
          3. companies or individuals that act as our agents, contractors, service providers and/or professional advisers;
          4. any financial institution and charge or credit card issuing companies with which you have or propose to have dealings;
          5. our business associates in or outside Malaysia;
          6. to share the information with trusted business partners for the provision of their services
          7. any parties to whom you have given us your express or implied consent to disclose; or
          8. to such other parties as may be permitted under the laws of Malaysia.

          You may contact us at the following contact points should you have any queries regarding this Privacy Policy or you wish to have inaccurate information of you to be corrected: –

          Designation: Data Privacy Officer
          Telephone: 03-7872 6921
          Fax: 03-7872 6994
          Email: pdpa@nanyang.com.my
          Address :1, Jalan SS 7/2, 47301 Petaling Jaya, Selangor

          We will keep this Privacy Policy under regular review and we may amend this Privacy Policy from time to time without prior notice. The updated version shall apply and supersede all previous versions. It is advisable that you check this Privacy Policy on a regular basis.

          This notice was updated: 5th February 2014

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