Categories意见

2021年03月13日

黄伟益
产业管理顾问

 

 

我最近在处理一宗入禀分层管理仲裁庭,关于某管理机构向其公寓原任发展商,追讨对方所拥有某个单位的案件时,面对相当棘手的问题。

尽管这个属于原任发展商的业主没有提出要求,但负责聆审案件的分层管理仲裁庭庭主,却基于管理机构未根据2013年分层管理法令之规定,从2015年6月1日(槟州则是2015年6月12日)开始,依据每个单位之面积单位(Share Unit)来计算各别业主所需缴付的管理费,导致我在最后一分钟不得不要求撤回这个案件。

若我没有主动撤回此案,或对方不让我撤回此案,仲裁庭庭主将因2013年分层管理法令的限制,不让我所代表的管理机构有权取得对方从2015年6月12日起至管理机构开始改以面积单位计算管理费的这段期间,所欠的管理费数额。

若扣除利息不算,单是这名业主在这段期间,即从2015年6月12日至2017年4月30日所拖欠的管理费、储备金,加上地税及保险费,总额为7040令吉70仙,同时期所累积的利息是4600令吉47仙;若管理机构无法取回这笔欠款,这个业主则平白省下1万1641令吉17仙。

这个原发展商业主所拥有的单位,其面积为1712平方尺,若以每方尺16仙计算,每月管理费为274令吉;从2017年5月起,这个拥有161个面积单位的产业,其管理费则以每个面积单位2令吉20仙计算,则每月须缴付管理费354令吉20仙。

当然,管理层有权在任何时候通过召开常年大会或特别大会来制订新收费率,不过,从2013年分层管理法令生效的日期算起,不管是发展商、共管机构(JMB)或管理机构(MC),一律须以面积单位来计算各别业主所缴之管理费。

管理机构须改变结算方式

我们看回2013年分层管理法令,当中针对管理层须以面积单位计算各别业主所缴付管理费之各项条文如下:

(a)第12(3)条文:针对发展商管理时期(即未成立共管机构或管理机构之前);

(b)第25(3)条文:针对共管机构管理时期;

(c)第52(2)条文:针对发展商以管理机构名义来管理之时期;

(d)第60(3)(b)条文:针对管理机构管理时期;以及

(e)第68(2)条文:针对管理分机构(Sub-MC)管理时期

这些条文皆很清楚阐明,所有管理单位皆须以面积单位,来计算各别业主所须缴付的管理费;至于储备金,则一律是管理费之10%而定。举个例子,若每月管理费为100令吉,储备金则是10令吉,总额为110令吉。

我尝试提出不同的论点,包括指这些负责管理分层建筑的单位,即使他们因法律规定而须改以面积单位来计算各别业主所缴付之管理费,他们仍须等到下一次常年大会或特大,通过提呈新的动议来改换这个计算方式。

我亦争论只要管理层所收取的费用,在2015年6月1日(槟州是2015年6月12日)之前所召开的常年大会或特大获得通过,这个收费率不应在新的法令实施之后立即受到影响,而须改变其结算方式。

无论如何,我们所提出的这些论点,未必能获得仲裁庭庭主所认同。

为了避免影响管理层今后所要追收的管理费,我劝请所有共管机构或管理机构,立即着手改变其结算管理费的方程式,并以面积单位来重新制订各别业主所须缴付的管理费及储备金。

不能另收地税保险费

2013年分层管理法令还有另一规定,即管理层只能收取月费(Charges)及储备金(Sinking Fund),而不能另行收取地税及保险费等。

即使管理层耗5000令吉为整座楼宇购买保险,管理层绝不能将之除以200个单位,然后向每个单位收取25令吉的保费;同样的,若这个楼宇的每年地税为2000令吉,管理层绝不能直接除以200个单位,并向每名业主收取10令吉之地税。

根据法庭之前所作的诸多判例,不管是共管机构或是管理机构,若他们要收取任何费用,就须通过召开常年大会或特大来批准有关收费率;管理层无权根据他们所承担的开销,直接向每名业主收取各别的费用。

至于2013年分层管理法令规定管理层只能收取月费及储备金,管理层则有必要将地税、保费等其他开销,纳入其财务预算案,然后以此结算每名业主所须缴付的月费。

当您跟发展商购屋并签署买卖合约时,有关合约将附录一份由发展商所制订的常年预算案;同样的,发展商在召开共管机构或管理机构首次大会时,或共管机构或管理机构每当要调整或提高管理费时,亦需在大会当天提呈并寻求通过常年预算案。

这份常年预算案将列出管理层在未来12个月内,所需承担的维修与管理开销,这个总额将除以整座楼宇的面积单位总数并除以12个月,以此结算每个面积单位之常月管理费。

随后,管理费再以这个平均收费率,乘以各别业主之面积单位,以此来结算每名业主所需缴付的管理费及储备金。对于那些还未有分层地契之楼宇,则可能无需以面积单位来结算各别业主须缴付之管理费及储备金。

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    This site is available “as is” and “as available” basis. We do not warrant that this service will be uninterrupted or error-free. There may be delays, omissions, interruptions and inaccuracies in the news, information or other materials available through this web site. We are not responsible for the availability or content of other services that may be linked to this web site. We do not make any warranties, express or implied, including without limitation, those of merchant quality and fitness for a particular purpose, with respect to this web site or any information or services that are available or advertised or sold through this web site. We do not make any representations, nor do we endorse the accuracy, completeness, timeliness or reliability of any advice, opinion, statement or other material or database displayed, uploaded or distributed in this web site or available through links in this web site. We reserve the right to correct any errors or omissions in this web site. Although we intend to take reasonable steps to prevent the introduction of viruses, worms, “Trojan horses” or other destructive materials to this web site, we do not guarantee or warrant that the materials that may be downloaded from this web site do not contain such destructive features. We are not liable for any damages or harm attributable to such features. If you rely on this information and any materials available through this web site, you do so solely at your own risk. Without derogation of the above and/or terms and conditions of the applicable agreements governing all the information and services of the web site, reasonable measures shall be taken by property.eNanyang.my to ensure the accuracy and validity of all information relating to transactions of products and services of related web site.

    property.eNanyang.my shall not be liable for any loss or damages howsoever arising whether in contract, tort, negligence, strict liability or any other basis, including without limitation any damages, loss or expense, direct, indirect, special, or consequential damage, punitive damages or economic loss arising from or in connection with: (1) any access, use or the inability to access or use this website, or reliance on the materials and/or any information in this web site; (2) any system, server or connection failure, error, omission, interruption, delay in transmission, or computer virus; and (3) any use of or access to any other sites linked to this web site. Any hyperlinks to any other websites are not an endorsement or verification of such web sites and such web sites should only be accessed at the user’s own risks. This exclusion clause shall take effect to the fullest extent permitted by law.

    Links from or to the web sites outside of property.eNanyang.my are meant for convenience only. This web site does not investigate, verify, monitor, or endorse the content, accuracy, opinions expressed and other links (if any) provided by such resources as such linked web sites are owned and operated by third parties and are not under the control of property.eNanyang.my. Therefore, we shall not be responsible and makes no warranties in respect of the contents of those web sites, the third parties named therein or their products and services. Furthermore, the links provided in this web site to other shall not be considered an endorsement or verification or approval of such linked web sites of the contents therein. Linking to any other site is at your sole risk and property.eNanyang.my will not be responsible or liable for any damages in connection with linking. It is advisable for you to read the privacy policy statements any web sites which are linked to this web site.

    You will on demand indemnify and keep indemnified property.eNanyang.my from all liabilities, claims, losses and expenses, including any legal fees that may be incurred by property.eNanyang.my in connection with or arising from (1) your use or misuse of this web site and the services provided herein, or (2) your breach of these terms and conditions howsoever occasioned, or (3) any intellectual property right or proprietary right infringement claim made by a third party against property.eNanyang.my in connection with your use of this web site.


    property.eNanyang.my reserves the right to terminate and/or suspend your access and/or your use of this web site at any time, for any reason. In particular, and without limitation, we may terminate and/or suspend your access should you violate any of these terms and conditions, or violate the rights of property.eNanyang.my of any other user or any third party.

    The failure of property.eNanyang.my to exercise or enforce any right or provision of these terms and conditions shall not constitute a waiver of such right or provision. If any part of these terms and conditions is determined to be invalid or unenforceable pursuant to applicable law, then the invalid and unenforceable provision will be deemed superseded by a valid, enforceable provision that most clearly matches the intent of the original provision and the remainder of the other provisions of the terms and conditions shall continue in full force and effect. All rights not expressly granted herein are reserved.

    These terms and conditions are governed by and are to be construed in accordance with the laws of Malaysia. By accessing this web site and/or using the services provided herein by property.eNanyang.my, you hereby agree to submit to the non-exclusive jurisdiction of the Malaysian courts in Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia in all disputes arising out of or relating to the use of this web site.

    私隐政策声明

      You agree that Nanyang Press Holdings Berhad and its subsidiaries (“Nanyang Group”) may process, use, disclose and/or retain your personal information in accordance with our Privacy Policy as long as necessary for the fulfillment of the Purposes stated herein.

      In order for us to provide our products and/or services to you in the most efficient and effective manner, we need to collect relevant personal information from you. The personal information collected by us may include, but not limited to, the followings: –

      • Name;
      • Address;
      • Phone Number;
      • Fax Number;
      • Date of Birth;
      • Email Address;
      • Gender;
      • Bank Information;
      • Identity Card Number; or
      • Credit Card Information

      Personal Information that you provide to us will be Processed (as defined in PDPA 2010) for the following purposes: –

      • to process your application and/or request for our products and/or services;
      • to complete transactions with you, manage and verify your membership of our customer loyalty scheme where applicable;
      • to provide you with the products and/or services you have requested or subscribed;
      • to understand and analyse our sales, your needs and preferences;
      • to develop, enhance, market and provide products and services to meet your needs;
      • to conduct marketing activities;
      • to direct market to you;
      • to determine how we can improve our services to you;
      • to process exchanges or product returns;
      • to process payments to you;
      • to enable you to participate in promotions and contests;
      • to investigate and resolve any service issues;
      • to keep in contact with you and better manage any business relationship we have with you;
      • to send you updates on our products, news and events, promotions and rewards, special privileges and initiatives of Nanyang Group, our partners and advertisers;
      • for debt collection purposes;
      • to respond to requests or complaints;
      • for future business opportunities and transactions;
      • for audit, compliance and risk management purposes;
      • to meet legal and regulatory requirements; or
      • for all other purposes incidental and associated with any of the above;
      collectively known as the “Purposes”.<

      Nanyang Group will treat all information we hold about you as private and confidential. In order to provide our products and/or services to you, we may need to disclose your personal information to the following third parties: –

      1. law enforcement agencies;
      2. government agencies;
      3. companies or individuals that act as our agents, contractors, service providers and/or professional advisers;
      4. any financial institution and charge or credit card issuing companies with which you have or propose to have dealings;
      5. our business associates in or outside Malaysia;
      6. to share the information with trusted business partners for the provision of their services
      7. any parties to whom you have given us your express or implied consent to disclose; or
      8. to such other parties as may be permitted under the laws of Malaysia.

      You may contact us at the following contact points should you have any queries regarding this Privacy Policy or you wish to have inaccurate information of you to be corrected: –

      Designation: Data Privacy Officer
      Telephone: 03-7872 6921
      Fax: 03-7872 6994
      Email: pdpa@nanyang.com.my
      Address :1, Jalan SS 7/2, 47301 Petaling Jaya, Selangor

      We will keep this Privacy Policy under regular review and we may amend this Privacy Policy from time to time without prior notice. The updated version shall apply and supersede all previous versions. It is advisable that you check this Privacy Policy on a regular basis.

      This notice was updated: 5th February 2014

      © 南洋商报有限公司版权所有 | Copyright Nanyang Siang Pau Sdn. Bhd.(6164-V)

      电邮:prop@eNanyang.my

      地址: No. 1, Jalan SS 7/2, 47301 Petaling Jaya, Selangor Darul Ehsan, Malaysia

      电话: +603-7872 6888

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        私隐政策声明

          You agree that Nanyang Press Holdings Berhad and its subsidiaries (“Nanyang Group”) may process, use, disclose and/or retain your personal information in accordance with our Privacy Policy as long as necessary for the fulfillment of the Purposes stated herein.

          In order for us to provide our products and/or services to you in the most efficient and effective manner, we need to collect relevant personal information from you. The personal information collected by us may include, but not limited to, the followings: –

          • Name;
          • Address;
          • Phone Number;
          • Fax Number;
          • Date of Birth;
          • Email Address;
          • Gender;
          • Bank Information;
          • Identity Card Number; or
          • Credit Card Information

          Personal Information that you provide to us will be Processed (as defined in PDPA 2010) for the following purposes: –

          • to process your application and/or request for our products and/or services;
          • to complete transactions with you, manage and verify your membership of our customer loyalty scheme where applicable;
          • to provide you with the products and/or services you have requested or subscribed;
          • to understand and analyse our sales, your needs and preferences;
          • to develop, enhance, market and provide products and services to meet your needs;
          • to conduct marketing activities;
          • to direct market to you;
          • to determine how we can improve our services to you;
          • to process exchanges or product returns;
          • to process payments to you;
          • to enable you to participate in promotions and contests;
          • to investigate and resolve any service issues;
          • to keep in contact with you and better manage any business relationship we have with you;
          • to send you updates on our products, news and events, promotions and rewards, special privileges and initiatives of Nanyang Group, our partners and advertisers;
          • for debt collection purposes;
          • to respond to requests or complaints;
          • for future business opportunities and transactions;
          • for audit, compliance and risk management purposes;
          • to meet legal and regulatory requirements; or
          • for all other purposes incidental and associated with any of the above;
          collectively known as the “Purposes”.<

          Nanyang Group will treat all information we hold about you as private and confidential. In order to provide our products and/or services to you, we may need to disclose your personal information to the following third parties: –

          1. law enforcement agencies;
          2. government agencies;
          3. companies or individuals that act as our agents, contractors, service providers and/or professional advisers;
          4. any financial institution and charge or credit card issuing companies with which you have or propose to have dealings;
          5. our business associates in or outside Malaysia;
          6. to share the information with trusted business partners for the provision of their services
          7. any parties to whom you have given us your express or implied consent to disclose; or
          8. to such other parties as may be permitted under the laws of Malaysia.

          You may contact us at the following contact points should you have any queries regarding this Privacy Policy or you wish to have inaccurate information of you to be corrected: –

          Designation: Data Privacy Officer
          Telephone: 03-7872 6921
          Fax: 03-7872 6994
          Email: pdpa@nanyang.com.my
          Address :1, Jalan SS 7/2, 47301 Petaling Jaya, Selangor

          We will keep this Privacy Policy under regular review and we may amend this Privacy Policy from time to time without prior notice. The updated version shall apply and supersede all previous versions. It is advisable that you check this Privacy Policy on a regular basis.

          This notice was updated: 5th February 2014

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