Categories意见

2021年10月25日

林国强律师
林国强律师事务所资深合伙人

 

 

布局图每层6间服务式公寓及住宅,
完工后竟变成7间单位。

案例背景

服务式公寓可否用来经营酒店?公契如何影响你的生活?在服务式公寓里,业主时常对管理层或发展商的管理,有着不同的意见,那么当出现管理上的分歧时,应该怎么处理?

案情摘要

1)原告(买家)向被告(房屋发展商)所提出的申索是关于违反买卖协议及 Deed of Mutual Covenant (公契)和/或失实陈述。发展商开发了Arte S,这是一个由服务式公寓和“小型家庭办公室”(SOHO)公寓组成的房产项目。买家向发展商购买了一套服务式公寓兼住宅(单位)。

2)买家根据每层6间服务式公寓及住宅的布局图和建筑平面图购买该单位。布局图为买卖协议中的第一附表(简称“原图”)。 然而,完工后的43A层有7间单位,比原图多了一个,额外的单位明显增加了买方楼层(43A楼)的密度。

3)发展商在买卖协议签订后4年零3个月,向Arte S的业主发送一封征求他们同意的信(“同意书”),以更改原图 。买家并未同意,但发展商依然实施和执行更改。

4)买家进一步声称,一间酒店被允许在 Arte S 以 T Hotel 的风格经营,该酒店后来更名为 Fifi Suites,违反了公契。 买家声称,经营酒店违反了公契第4.1条,该条规定单位只能用作住宅用途,不得用作商业用途。

5)买家鉴于上述违约行为,未搬入单位入住,并立即对发展商提出诉讼。

“根据 1966 年房屋发展法令和1989年房屋发展条例下的法定买卖协议第13条以及公契,发展商是否必须获得买家的同意以修改建筑计划。”

6)买卖协议第13条规定如下:

上述单位及所有共同产业应按照附表 4 中规定的描述和有关当局批准的计划建造,该描述和计划已被买家接受和批准,正如买家在此所承认的那样。除非有关当局要求,否则未经买家书面同意,不得对其进行任何更改或偏离。买家无需承担此类更改或偏差的费用,如果更改或偏差涉及替换或使用更便宜的材料或省略最初同意由卖方进行的工程,买家则有权相对地减少此处的购买价格或索取损害赔偿,视情况而定。

7)第13条明确规定,买家已接受并同意原图,未经买家书面同意,不得更改原图。原图不仅包括买家的单位,还包括该楼层的所有单位和共同产业。

8)法官认为,该条款不仅规定买家的单位需按照附表四的说明进行建造,而且还要求发展商按照地方当局批准的原图进行建造。这将保护买家免受发展商此后对原图进行任何的更改。在实施此类更改之前,需要获得买家的同意,因为这些更改可能会对买家产生不利影响。一个额外的单位会减少买家楼层上的空间大小。因此,这种变化将严重损害买家对他们楼层的平静享受。

9)发展商所加入公契的第 29.2 条,目的是要摆脱买卖合约第 13 条对买家利益的保护。在此情况下,公契第29.2条若与买卖协议第13条不一致,即属违法及不可执行。

“根据买卖协议和公契,Arte S这个发展项目是属于住宅项目还是商业建筑。”

10)公契第4.1条明确规定单位的使用如下:

“所述单位仅可用于居住目的,并需符合所有联邦或地方法律的相关规定,并不得用于商业目的或任何非法或不道德的目的,或任何可能损害上述项目其他买家的健康安全和声誉。”

11)发展商表示,2018 年 3 月 29 日,一群买家将各自的单位转让给Nusmetro Leisure (Penang) Sdn Bhd,后者委托 LOF Management Sdn Bhd 以 T Hotel 的名义营销、管理和出租服务式公寓,并在后来改变了其风格,将其命名为 Fifi Suites。发展商的立场是,它已于 2019 年 2 月 18 日完成项目发展,并把买家所购买的单位移交给他们,以履行其在买卖协议下的所有义务。发展商表示,它无法控制其他买家对各自单位所作出的行为。

12)法官认为,公契对作为协议一方的发展商是具有约束力的。“服务式公寓”或“小型家庭办公室”是指住宅。“住宅”一词表达了永久居住或长期居住的意图,即把这个地方称为家。允许服务式公寓或“小型家庭办公室”公寓作为酒店形式的短期住宿活动肯定不属于住宅类别。短期住宿明显是作为商业用途而非住宅用途,并明显违反了公契第4.1条。

判决

13)(a) 宣判 (declaration)发展商违反了买卖协议和公契;

(b) 宣判买卖协议及公契可作废 (voidable);

(c)命令发展商需向买家支付以下款项:

(i)124万4000令吉,为Parcel 01,43A 楼层(包括一个停车位)的购买价格;

(ii)7,611令吉35仙,其中包括买家支付的押金、服务费和各种税款;

(iii)1万2690令吉54仙,购买单位所支付的法律费用。

(iv)为从金融机构获得贷款而支付的利息和其他付款,以及为购买单位提供资金的附带费用。

(v)评估一般损害赔偿(如有)。

(vi)利息和成本。

结语

14)买家的权利及住宅物业的管理须受公契规管。任何管理层的决定都需符合公契里的条款。买家在签订公契之前,建议多加注意。

15)任何看似规避或脱离买卖协议条款的公契条款都是非法的。

16)发展商如果想要对经批准的建筑图进行任何更改/修改,均应征得买家的同意。

17)地方当局所批准的建筑图尤为重要,如发展商没有依照批准的建筑图来完成工程,买家有权终止买卖协议。

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    This site is available “as is” and “as available” basis. We do not warrant that this service will be uninterrupted or error-free. There may be delays, omissions, interruptions and inaccuracies in the news, information or other materials available through this web site. We are not responsible for the availability or content of other services that may be linked to this web site. We do not make any warranties, express or implied, including without limitation, those of merchant quality and fitness for a particular purpose, with respect to this web site or any information or services that are available or advertised or sold through this web site. We do not make any representations, nor do we endorse the accuracy, completeness, timeliness or reliability of any advice, opinion, statement or other material or database displayed, uploaded or distributed in this web site or available through links in this web site. We reserve the right to correct any errors or omissions in this web site. Although we intend to take reasonable steps to prevent the introduction of viruses, worms, “Trojan horses” or other destructive materials to this web site, we do not guarantee or warrant that the materials that may be downloaded from this web site do not contain such destructive features. We are not liable for any damages or harm attributable to such features. If you rely on this information and any materials available through this web site, you do so solely at your own risk. Without derogation of the above and/or terms and conditions of the applicable agreements governing all the information and services of the web site, reasonable measures shall be taken by property.eNanyang.my to ensure the accuracy and validity of all information relating to transactions of products and services of related web site.

    property.eNanyang.my shall not be liable for any loss or damages howsoever arising whether in contract, tort, negligence, strict liability or any other basis, including without limitation any damages, loss or expense, direct, indirect, special, or consequential damage, punitive damages or economic loss arising from or in connection with: (1) any access, use or the inability to access or use this website, or reliance on the materials and/or any information in this web site; (2) any system, server or connection failure, error, omission, interruption, delay in transmission, or computer virus; and (3) any use of or access to any other sites linked to this web site. Any hyperlinks to any other websites are not an endorsement or verification of such web sites and such web sites should only be accessed at the user’s own risks. This exclusion clause shall take effect to the fullest extent permitted by law.

    Links from or to the web sites outside of property.eNanyang.my are meant for convenience only. This web site does not investigate, verify, monitor, or endorse the content, accuracy, opinions expressed and other links (if any) provided by such resources as such linked web sites are owned and operated by third parties and are not under the control of property.eNanyang.my. Therefore, we shall not be responsible and makes no warranties in respect of the contents of those web sites, the third parties named therein or their products and services. Furthermore, the links provided in this web site to other shall not be considered an endorsement or verification or approval of such linked web sites of the contents therein. Linking to any other site is at your sole risk and property.eNanyang.my will not be responsible or liable for any damages in connection with linking. It is advisable for you to read the privacy policy statements any web sites which are linked to this web site.

    You will on demand indemnify and keep indemnified property.eNanyang.my from all liabilities, claims, losses and expenses, including any legal fees that may be incurred by property.eNanyang.my in connection with or arising from (1) your use or misuse of this web site and the services provided herein, or (2) your breach of these terms and conditions howsoever occasioned, or (3) any intellectual property right or proprietary right infringement claim made by a third party against property.eNanyang.my in connection with your use of this web site.


    property.eNanyang.my reserves the right to terminate and/or suspend your access and/or your use of this web site at any time, for any reason. In particular, and without limitation, we may terminate and/or suspend your access should you violate any of these terms and conditions, or violate the rights of property.eNanyang.my of any other user or any third party.

    The failure of property.eNanyang.my to exercise or enforce any right or provision of these terms and conditions shall not constitute a waiver of such right or provision. If any part of these terms and conditions is determined to be invalid or unenforceable pursuant to applicable law, then the invalid and unenforceable provision will be deemed superseded by a valid, enforceable provision that most clearly matches the intent of the original provision and the remainder of the other provisions of the terms and conditions shall continue in full force and effect. All rights not expressly granted herein are reserved.

    These terms and conditions are governed by and are to be construed in accordance with the laws of Malaysia. By accessing this web site and/or using the services provided herein by property.eNanyang.my, you hereby agree to submit to the non-exclusive jurisdiction of the Malaysian courts in Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia in all disputes arising out of or relating to the use of this web site.

    私隐政策声明

      You agree that Nanyang Press Holdings Berhad and its subsidiaries (“Nanyang Group”) may process, use, disclose and/or retain your personal information in accordance with our Privacy Policy as long as necessary for the fulfillment of the Purposes stated herein.

      In order for us to provide our products and/or services to you in the most efficient and effective manner, we need to collect relevant personal information from you. The personal information collected by us may include, but not limited to, the followings: –

      • Name;
      • Address;
      • Phone Number;
      • Fax Number;
      • Date of Birth;
      • Email Address;
      • Gender;
      • Bank Information;
      • Identity Card Number; or
      • Credit Card Information

      Personal Information that you provide to us will be Processed (as defined in PDPA 2010) for the following purposes: –

      • to process your application and/or request for our products and/or services;
      • to complete transactions with you, manage and verify your membership of our customer loyalty scheme where applicable;
      • to provide you with the products and/or services you have requested or subscribed;
      • to understand and analyse our sales, your needs and preferences;
      • to develop, enhance, market and provide products and services to meet your needs;
      • to conduct marketing activities;
      • to direct market to you;
      • to determine how we can improve our services to you;
      • to process exchanges or product returns;
      • to process payments to you;
      • to enable you to participate in promotions and contests;
      • to investigate and resolve any service issues;
      • to keep in contact with you and better manage any business relationship we have with you;
      • to send you updates on our products, news and events, promotions and rewards, special privileges and initiatives of Nanyang Group, our partners and advertisers;
      • for debt collection purposes;
      • to respond to requests or complaints;
      • for future business opportunities and transactions;
      • for audit, compliance and risk management purposes;
      • to meet legal and regulatory requirements; or
      • for all other purposes incidental and associated with any of the above;
      collectively known as the “Purposes”.<

      Nanyang Group will treat all information we hold about you as private and confidential. In order to provide our products and/or services to you, we may need to disclose your personal information to the following third parties: –

      1. law enforcement agencies;
      2. government agencies;
      3. companies or individuals that act as our agents, contractors, service providers and/or professional advisers;
      4. any financial institution and charge or credit card issuing companies with which you have or propose to have dealings;
      5. our business associates in or outside Malaysia;
      6. to share the information with trusted business partners for the provision of their services
      7. any parties to whom you have given us your express or implied consent to disclose; or
      8. to such other parties as may be permitted under the laws of Malaysia.

      You may contact us at the following contact points should you have any queries regarding this Privacy Policy or you wish to have inaccurate information of you to be corrected: –

      Designation: Data Privacy Officer
      Telephone: 03-7872 6921
      Fax: 03-7872 6994
      Email: pdpa@nanyang.com.my
      Address :1, Jalan SS 7/2, 47301 Petaling Jaya, Selangor

      We will keep this Privacy Policy under regular review and we may amend this Privacy Policy from time to time without prior notice. The updated version shall apply and supersede all previous versions. It is advisable that you check this Privacy Policy on a regular basis.

      This notice was updated: 5th February 2014

      © 南洋商报有限公司版权所有 | Copyright Nanyang Siang Pau Sdn. Bhd.(6164-V)

      电邮:prop@eNanyang.my

      地址: No. 1, Jalan SS 7/2, 47301 Petaling Jaya, Selangor Darul Ehsan, Malaysia

      电话: +603-7872 6888

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        私隐政策声明

          You agree that Nanyang Press Holdings Berhad and its subsidiaries (“Nanyang Group”) may process, use, disclose and/or retain your personal information in accordance with our Privacy Policy as long as necessary for the fulfillment of the Purposes stated herein.

          In order for us to provide our products and/or services to you in the most efficient and effective manner, we need to collect relevant personal information from you. The personal information collected by us may include, but not limited to, the followings: –

          • Name;
          • Address;
          • Phone Number;
          • Fax Number;
          • Date of Birth;
          • Email Address;
          • Gender;
          • Bank Information;
          • Identity Card Number; or
          • Credit Card Information

          Personal Information that you provide to us will be Processed (as defined in PDPA 2010) for the following purposes: –

          • to process your application and/or request for our products and/or services;
          • to complete transactions with you, manage and verify your membership of our customer loyalty scheme where applicable;
          • to provide you with the products and/or services you have requested or subscribed;
          • to understand and analyse our sales, your needs and preferences;
          • to develop, enhance, market and provide products and services to meet your needs;
          • to conduct marketing activities;
          • to direct market to you;
          • to determine how we can improve our services to you;
          • to process exchanges or product returns;
          • to process payments to you;
          • to enable you to participate in promotions and contests;
          • to investigate and resolve any service issues;
          • to keep in contact with you and better manage any business relationship we have with you;
          • to send you updates on our products, news and events, promotions and rewards, special privileges and initiatives of Nanyang Group, our partners and advertisers;
          • for debt collection purposes;
          • to respond to requests or complaints;
          • for future business opportunities and transactions;
          • for audit, compliance and risk management purposes;
          • to meet legal and regulatory requirements; or
          • for all other purposes incidental and associated with any of the above;
          collectively known as the “Purposes”.<

          Nanyang Group will treat all information we hold about you as private and confidential. In order to provide our products and/or services to you, we may need to disclose your personal information to the following third parties: –

          1. law enforcement agencies;
          2. government agencies;
          3. companies or individuals that act as our agents, contractors, service providers and/or professional advisers;
          4. any financial institution and charge or credit card issuing companies with which you have or propose to have dealings;
          5. our business associates in or outside Malaysia;
          6. to share the information with trusted business partners for the provision of their services
          7. any parties to whom you have given us your express or implied consent to disclose; or
          8. to such other parties as may be permitted under the laws of Malaysia.

          You may contact us at the following contact points should you have any queries regarding this Privacy Policy or you wish to have inaccurate information of you to be corrected: –

          Designation: Data Privacy Officer
          Telephone: 03-7872 6921
          Fax: 03-7872 6994
          Email: pdpa@nanyang.com.my
          Address :1, Jalan SS 7/2, 47301 Petaling Jaya, Selangor

          We will keep this Privacy Policy under regular review and we may amend this Privacy Policy from time to time without prior notice. The updated version shall apply and supersede all previous versions. It is advisable that you check this Privacy Policy on a regular basis.

          This notice was updated: 5th February 2014

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