Categories意见

2022年03月28日

黄伟益
产业管理顾问

 

 

要入禀分层管理仲裁庭,
你须自己当律师出庭。

面对建筑总监所做的不合理决定,我们该怎么办?

我相信很多人经常会对建筑总监(COB)所做的决定,或对其所采取的行动有许多怨言。然而,又有多少人敢将建筑总监控上法庭,或是分层管理仲裁庭呢?

事实上,每个地方的建筑总监乃由市长,或县议会,或是市议会主席兼任。然而,市长或县、市议会主席绝对没有时间亲自处理跟建筑总监相关的事务,所以通常会另设建筑总监部门,并由联邦政府委派一位专业估价师来领导这个部门。

在这个部门主管底下,除了联邦政府可能会加派一些公务员之外,其他大多数官员或职员皆由地方议会借调过来。由于所有人的背景不一样,加上他们固有的习性,而且缺乏有系统的执法训练及对法律的认知,建筑总监在决策或执法方面,往往会不尽人意。

有些时候,建筑总监可能会因为误判情况,而作出备受争议的决定。在这种情况下,任何不满的一方就要考虑,是否要对建筑总监采取司法诉讼,或是入禀分层管理仲裁庭了。

要采取法律行动有两种,其一就是通过法庭采取民事诉讼行动,其二则是通过入禀分层管理仲裁庭。至于法庭的民事诉讼,则有两种方式,即直接起诉建筑总监,另一个方式则是通过司法检讨来挑战建筑总监所做的决定。

司法检讨有时间限制

司法检讨有时间限制,即起诉人须在3个月期限内入禀高庭,而且须预先取得高庭的准令才可以入禀。起诉人可以针对建筑总监所做的任何决定,甚至包括不敢采取行动的立场(不敢做决定也可被视为是一种决定),要求高庭撤销或改变建筑总监的立场。

至于民事诉讼,虽然1948机构保护法令有阐明,所有针对公家机构的民事诉讼行动须在36个月时间内入禀法庭,不过2013年分层管理法令第145条文亦规定,若无法证明建筑总监是恶意作出相关决定,则无法针对建筑总监所作的决定(包括疏忽或错漏情形)展开诉讼。

在这种情况下,或许入禀分层管理仲裁庭,就变得既低廉又相较容易的选择。不过,要入禀分层管理仲裁庭,你不能找律师代表你出庭,你须自己当律师出庭,并在仲裁庭跟代表建筑总监的相关地方议会法律顾问亲自过招,这就变得相当有压力了。

不管怎样,若你认为本身有好的原因,必须针对建筑总监入禀分层管理仲裁庭,你绝对可以随时这样做。通过入禀分层管理仲裁庭,我们无形中将助使建筑总监今后将更细心,而且更负责任地看待任何来自业主或被压制者所作的投诉,而不是完全不理睬、不答复、不行动,甚至有时还不当一回事呢!

入禀仲裁庭需三思

不过,我要提醒各位,若要入禀分层管理仲裁庭起诉建筑总监,我们有时甚至需要再三思考,甚至要在策略上应用得对,否则建筑总监有可能通过仲裁庭反制,而委任管理代理(Managing Agent)来接管你的管理委员会操作。

我曾看过一个案例,雪兰莪州金銮镇有一栋低密度的中价公寓,就因为有一位业主(前任管理委员)针对新的管理委员入禀分层管理仲裁庭,同时将建筑总监列为第二答辩人,裁庭庭主最终判建筑总监胜诉,并裁决由建筑总监委任管理代理来接管整栋建筑物的管理工作。

我也曾协助入禀另一个案件,针对芙蓉金源大厦38年来无法成立共管机构,将发展商及芙蓉市政局建筑总监同时列为答辩人,要求召开第一次常年大会成立共管机构。不过,建筑总监在入禀答辩书(表格2)时,却要求仲裁庭允许建筑总监委任管理代理来接管。

这是2013年分层管理法令赋予建筑总监的杀手锏!所幸的是,金源大厦早于2020年12月顺利召开首次常年大会,并成立共管机构,否则整栋建筑物落入建筑总监手中,最终将导致业主有苦无处申诉的问题。

还有,任何人要入禀分层管理仲裁庭,还要准备面对仲裁庭将时间不断拖长的问题。我曾有一些案件,从入禀到第一次聆讯就要等上超过一年的时间,而且许多案件未必能够在3个月时间审完,甚至可能要拖上一年半载。

总而言之,若你不准备打一场持久战,尽量不要随意把你的案件带上仲裁庭。单是布城仲裁庭,截至2021年12月31日为止,至少就有超过3000个案件因为早前的封城或行动管控令,导致一直无法获得排期审讯。这当然还不包括其他区域所设立的分层管理仲裁庭案件。

若你在入禀过程将文件处理得不够完善,这亦可能导致你最终面临败诉,甚至无法再重新入禀案件的下场。若没有十足信心,我奉劝你不要轻易针对建筑总监入禀仲裁庭,否则你可能会分分钟栽筋斗而不自知。

可入禀表格12
传召建筑总监出庭

除了针对建筑总监入禀仲裁庭,其实,我们亦可考虑针对特定案件,通过入禀表格12要求传召建筑总监出庭,并在庭上让你亲自盘问建筑总监或其官员。

如果是入禀的一方传召建筑总监,他就可以先在庭上盘问建筑总监(Examination-in-chief),随后再由另一方来交叉盘问(Cross-Examination),最后再由入禀一方来重新盘问(Re-Examination),十足十就像律师在法庭上盘问证人的情况。

在盘问证人过后,庭主会让双方有时间准备,然后针对整个案件提呈书面陈词(Written Submission),过后再让双方针对书面陈词提呈书面答复,最后再择定日期宣读其决定。

从这个过程来看,分层管理仲裁庭表面看来似乎很容易,但实际操作起来却显得不容易。有时,庭主还会要求你将整个聆审所需要的过程,通过整理成辑,提呈给仲裁庭。这就是所谓的文件丛集(Bundle of Documents)。

这些字眼听在一般民众的耳中,简直是丈八金刚摸不着头脑。不过,你还是可以事先谘询本身的律师,或者对分层管理仲裁庭程序有经验的产业经理,他们将会给你最实际的专业意见,让你在分层管理仲裁庭取得最终的胜利。

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    All trademarks, service marks and logos displayed in this web site are the property of property.eNanyang.my and/or their respective third-party proprietors as identified in the web site. Unless the prior written consent of property.eNanyang.my or the relevant third-party proprietor of any trademarks, service marks or logos appearing on the web site has been obtained, no license or right is granted to any party accessing this web site to use, download, reproduce, copy or modify such trademarks, service marks or logos. Similarly, unless the prior written consent of property.eNanyang.my or the relevant proprietor has been obtained, no such trade mark, service mark or logo may be used as a link or to mark any link to the property.eNanyang.my web site or any other site. Just as property.eNanyang.my requires users to respect our copyrights, and those of our affiliates and partners, we respect the copyrights of others. If you believe in good faith that your copyrighted work has been reproduced on our site without authorisation in a way that constitutes copyright infringement, you may notify our designated copyright agent either by mail to Nanyang Siang Pau Sdn Bhd, No. 1, Jalan SS 7/2, 47301 Petaling Jaya, Selangor, Malaysia or by email to prop@eNanyang.my.

    This site is available “as is” and “as available” basis. We do not warrant that this service will be uninterrupted or error-free. There may be delays, omissions, interruptions and inaccuracies in the news, information or other materials available through this web site. We are not responsible for the availability or content of other services that may be linked to this web site. We do not make any warranties, express or implied, including without limitation, those of merchant quality and fitness for a particular purpose, with respect to this web site or any information or services that are available or advertised or sold through this web site. We do not make any representations, nor do we endorse the accuracy, completeness, timeliness or reliability of any advice, opinion, statement or other material or database displayed, uploaded or distributed in this web site or available through links in this web site. We reserve the right to correct any errors or omissions in this web site. Although we intend to take reasonable steps to prevent the introduction of viruses, worms, “Trojan horses” or other destructive materials to this web site, we do not guarantee or warrant that the materials that may be downloaded from this web site do not contain such destructive features. We are not liable for any damages or harm attributable to such features. If you rely on this information and any materials available through this web site, you do so solely at your own risk. Without derogation of the above and/or terms and conditions of the applicable agreements governing all the information and services of the web site, reasonable measures shall be taken by property.eNanyang.my to ensure the accuracy and validity of all information relating to transactions of products and services of related web site.

    property.eNanyang.my shall not be liable for any loss or damages howsoever arising whether in contract, tort, negligence, strict liability or any other basis, including without limitation any damages, loss or expense, direct, indirect, special, or consequential damage, punitive damages or economic loss arising from or in connection with: (1) any access, use or the inability to access or use this website, or reliance on the materials and/or any information in this web site; (2) any system, server or connection failure, error, omission, interruption, delay in transmission, or computer virus; and (3) any use of or access to any other sites linked to this web site. Any hyperlinks to any other websites are not an endorsement or verification of such web sites and such web sites should only be accessed at the user’s own risks. This exclusion clause shall take effect to the fullest extent permitted by law.

    Links from or to the web sites outside of property.eNanyang.my are meant for convenience only. This web site does not investigate, verify, monitor, or endorse the content, accuracy, opinions expressed and other links (if any) provided by such resources as such linked web sites are owned and operated by third parties and are not under the control of property.eNanyang.my. Therefore, we shall not be responsible and makes no warranties in respect of the contents of those web sites, the third parties named therein or their products and services. Furthermore, the links provided in this web site to other shall not be considered an endorsement or verification or approval of such linked web sites of the contents therein. Linking to any other site is at your sole risk and property.eNanyang.my will not be responsible or liable for any damages in connection with linking. It is advisable for you to read the privacy policy statements any web sites which are linked to this web site.

    You will on demand indemnify and keep indemnified property.eNanyang.my from all liabilities, claims, losses and expenses, including any legal fees that may be incurred by property.eNanyang.my in connection with or arising from (1) your use or misuse of this web site and the services provided herein, or (2) your breach of these terms and conditions howsoever occasioned, or (3) any intellectual property right or proprietary right infringement claim made by a third party against property.eNanyang.my in connection with your use of this web site.


    property.eNanyang.my reserves the right to terminate and/or suspend your access and/or your use of this web site at any time, for any reason. In particular, and without limitation, we may terminate and/or suspend your access should you violate any of these terms and conditions, or violate the rights of property.eNanyang.my of any other user or any third party.

    The failure of property.eNanyang.my to exercise or enforce any right or provision of these terms and conditions shall not constitute a waiver of such right or provision. If any part of these terms and conditions is determined to be invalid or unenforceable pursuant to applicable law, then the invalid and unenforceable provision will be deemed superseded by a valid, enforceable provision that most clearly matches the intent of the original provision and the remainder of the other provisions of the terms and conditions shall continue in full force and effect. All rights not expressly granted herein are reserved.

    These terms and conditions are governed by and are to be construed in accordance with the laws of Malaysia. By accessing this web site and/or using the services provided herein by property.eNanyang.my, you hereby agree to submit to the non-exclusive jurisdiction of the Malaysian courts in Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia in all disputes arising out of or relating to the use of this web site.

    私隐政策声明

      You agree that Nanyang Press Holdings Berhad and its subsidiaries (“Nanyang Group”) may process, use, disclose and/or retain your personal information in accordance with our Privacy Policy as long as necessary for the fulfillment of the Purposes stated herein.

      In order for us to provide our products and/or services to you in the most efficient and effective manner, we need to collect relevant personal information from you. The personal information collected by us may include, but not limited to, the followings: –

      • Name;
      • Address;
      • Phone Number;
      • Fax Number;
      • Date of Birth;
      • Email Address;
      • Gender;
      • Bank Information;
      • Identity Card Number; or
      • Credit Card Information

      Personal Information that you provide to us will be Processed (as defined in PDPA 2010) for the following purposes: –

      • to process your application and/or request for our products and/or services;
      • to complete transactions with you, manage and verify your membership of our customer loyalty scheme where applicable;
      • to provide you with the products and/or services you have requested or subscribed;
      • to understand and analyse our sales, your needs and preferences;
      • to develop, enhance, market and provide products and services to meet your needs;
      • to conduct marketing activities;
      • to direct market to you;
      • to determine how we can improve our services to you;
      • to process exchanges or product returns;
      • to process payments to you;
      • to enable you to participate in promotions and contests;
      • to investigate and resolve any service issues;
      • to keep in contact with you and better manage any business relationship we have with you;
      • to send you updates on our products, news and events, promotions and rewards, special privileges and initiatives of Nanyang Group, our partners and advertisers;
      • for debt collection purposes;
      • to respond to requests or complaints;
      • for future business opportunities and transactions;
      • for audit, compliance and risk management purposes;
      • to meet legal and regulatory requirements; or
      • for all other purposes incidental and associated with any of the above;
      collectively known as the “Purposes”.<

      Nanyang Group will treat all information we hold about you as private and confidential. In order to provide our products and/or services to you, we may need to disclose your personal information to the following third parties: –

      1. law enforcement agencies;
      2. government agencies;
      3. companies or individuals that act as our agents, contractors, service providers and/or professional advisers;
      4. any financial institution and charge or credit card issuing companies with which you have or propose to have dealings;
      5. our business associates in or outside Malaysia;
      6. to share the information with trusted business partners for the provision of their services
      7. any parties to whom you have given us your express or implied consent to disclose; or
      8. to such other parties as may be permitted under the laws of Malaysia.

      You may contact us at the following contact points should you have any queries regarding this Privacy Policy or you wish to have inaccurate information of you to be corrected: –

      Designation: Data Privacy Officer
      Telephone: 03-7872 6921
      Fax: 03-7872 6994
      Email: pdpa@nanyang.com.my
      Address :1, Jalan SS 7/2, 47301 Petaling Jaya, Selangor

      We will keep this Privacy Policy under regular review and we may amend this Privacy Policy from time to time without prior notice. The updated version shall apply and supersede all previous versions. It is advisable that you check this Privacy Policy on a regular basis.

      This notice was updated: 5th February 2014

      © 南洋商报有限公司版权所有 | Copyright Nanyang Siang Pau Sdn. Bhd.(6164-V)

      电邮:prop@eNanyang.my

      地址: No. 1, Jalan SS 7/2, 47301 Petaling Jaya, Selangor Darul Ehsan, Malaysia

      电话: +603-7872 6888

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        The following terms and conditions apply to your access and the use of this Web Site and the Services provided herein by Nanyang Siang Pau Sdn Bhd. (hereinafter referred to as “eNanyang.my” and “property.eNanyang.my”). By accessing any page of this Web Site and/or using the services, you agree to be bound by these terms and conditions without limitation or qualification. If you do not accept these terms and conditions, please immediately discontinue access to this Web Site and/or use of the services.

        The information, products and services described or offered on this web site are not intended for distribution to, or use by, any person or entity in any jurisdiction or country where such distribution or use would be contrary to law or regulation or which would subject eNanyang.my or its subsidiaries or affiliates to any registration requirements within such jurisdiction or country. The materials, information (including opinions, commentary and recommendations) and functions provided in this web site shall not under any circumstances be considered or construed as an offer or solicitation to sell, buy, give, take, issue, allot or transfer, or as giving of any advice in respect of shares, stocks, bonds, notes, interests, unit trusts, mutual funds or other securities, investments, loans, advances, credits or deposits in any jurisdiction.

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        私隐政策声明

          You agree that Nanyang Press Holdings Berhad and its subsidiaries (“Nanyang Group”) may process, use, disclose and/or retain your personal information in accordance with our Privacy Policy as long as necessary for the fulfillment of the Purposes stated herein.

          In order for us to provide our products and/or services to you in the most efficient and effective manner, we need to collect relevant personal information from you. The personal information collected by us may include, but not limited to, the followings: –

          • Name;
          • Address;
          • Phone Number;
          • Fax Number;
          • Date of Birth;
          • Email Address;
          • Gender;
          • Bank Information;
          • Identity Card Number; or
          • Credit Card Information

          Personal Information that you provide to us will be Processed (as defined in PDPA 2010) for the following purposes: –

          • to process your application and/or request for our products and/or services;
          • to complete transactions with you, manage and verify your membership of our customer loyalty scheme where applicable;
          • to provide you with the products and/or services you have requested or subscribed;
          • to understand and analyse our sales, your needs and preferences;
          • to develop, enhance, market and provide products and services to meet your needs;
          • to conduct marketing activities;
          • to direct market to you;
          • to determine how we can improve our services to you;
          • to process exchanges or product returns;
          • to process payments to you;
          • to enable you to participate in promotions and contests;
          • to investigate and resolve any service issues;
          • to keep in contact with you and better manage any business relationship we have with you;
          • to send you updates on our products, news and events, promotions and rewards, special privileges and initiatives of Nanyang Group, our partners and advertisers;
          • for debt collection purposes;
          • to respond to requests or complaints;
          • for future business opportunities and transactions;
          • for audit, compliance and risk management purposes;
          • to meet legal and regulatory requirements; or
          • for all other purposes incidental and associated with any of the above;
          collectively known as the “Purposes”.<

          Nanyang Group will treat all information we hold about you as private and confidential. In order to provide our products and/or services to you, we may need to disclose your personal information to the following third parties: –

          1. law enforcement agencies;
          2. government agencies;
          3. companies or individuals that act as our agents, contractors, service providers and/or professional advisers;
          4. any financial institution and charge or credit card issuing companies with which you have or propose to have dealings;
          5. our business associates in or outside Malaysia;
          6. to share the information with trusted business partners for the provision of their services
          7. any parties to whom you have given us your express or implied consent to disclose; or
          8. to such other parties as may be permitted under the laws of Malaysia.

          You may contact us at the following contact points should you have any queries regarding this Privacy Policy or you wish to have inaccurate information of you to be corrected: –

          Designation: Data Privacy Officer
          Telephone: 03-7872 6921
          Fax: 03-7872 6994
          Email: pdpa@nanyang.com.my
          Address :1, Jalan SS 7/2, 47301 Petaling Jaya, Selangor

          We will keep this Privacy Policy under regular review and we may amend this Privacy Policy from time to time without prior notice. The updated version shall apply and supersede all previous versions. It is advisable that you check this Privacy Policy on a regular basis.

          This notice was updated: 5th February 2014

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