Categories意见

分层地契 还要等多久?

2022年09月26日

黄伟益
产业管理顾问

 

 

发展商走捷径获批准信,
从而不必如期移交分层地契?

我国于2012年修订1985年分层地契法令,主旨是要确保国内发展商在包空交屋给购屋者时,能同时将分层地契连同发展商签名的表格14A(分层地契转名表格)交予购屋者,进而保障购屋者的权益。

这个新修订的法令是于2015年6月1日生效。然而,经过这么多年后,有许多新完成的项目,仍无法在包空交屋时,把分层地契弄好交给购屋者。

由于发展商要获取房屋管控官(Housing Controller)发出的延期交出分层地契批准信并非难事,这导致不少发展商在没有如期把分层地契交给购屋者时走捷径,获取房屋管控官的批准信,从而不必如期移交分层地契。

即使随着联邦法院确认,房屋及地方政府部长不能授权房屋管控官发出这类延期交屋的信,但对于一些与当局关系良好的发展商,要获取延期交屋的信也肯定不难。

2.5%款额影响不大

虽然2015年通过宪报颁布并修订的1989年房屋发展(管制与执照)条例H附表有规定,只有发展商在包空交屋的当儿,将分层地契原件连同发展商签名的表格14A交给购屋者时,他们才可以从发展商HDA控制户头申领高至95%的购屋款额。否则发展商顶多只能申领高至92.5%的购屋款额。

不过,对于许多大型发展商来说,这当中的2.5%款额确实对他们整体的财务影响不大。只要发展商证明他们已向相关的政府单位申请分层地契,这个2.5%款额即可从HDA控制户头,转入发展商的律师楼户头来托管。

政府2012年提呈1985年分层地契法令修正案到国会寻求通过时,当中一些修订包括规定发展商在售屋之前,必须从土地局取得单位面积方程式的证明书(SiFUS),然后向建筑总监提交这份证明书,始能开始售卖其所推展的发展计划。

当局亦规定发展商须在完成楼顶建筑之前,向土地测量及地图局(JUPEM)取得所提议之分层图测证明书(CPSP),并在完成顶楼建筑后3个月内,向土地局提呈分割建筑物作为分层地契之申请。

任何发展商若违反上述规定,可面对不少过1万令吉,或不超过10万令吉罚款,以及不超过3年监禁。若发展商在罪成后依然违法,则将面对每天介于于100令吉至1000令吉的罚款。

共管楼宇分层地契改革路遥遥。

当局须严厉执法

同样的,对于那些在这个法令修正案于2015年生效前建竣的分层建筑物,法令有规定发展商须于2015年6月1日算起3个月内申请CPSP,包括申请分层地契,但许多分层建筑物的业主还是面对“只闻楼梯响,不见人下来”的窘境。

这就得回到各州政府或土地局的执法决心,否则再多针对分层地契法令的修订,若当局没有严厉执法,就难以取得所要的执法效果。

即使一些发展商面临清盘,土地局依然可以要求原地主(若跟发展商属于不同人或公司)或清盘师(或是政府所设的报穷局)遵守法令,并尽快协助购屋者申请分层地契。

冻结令无碍申请分层地契

许多楼宇无法申请分层地契,主要是面对土地用途不符或分割问题、建筑图测不符、发展商清盘,而原地主不愿主动提出分层地契之申请,甚至是地契抵押给银行等问题。

有些时候,发展商甚至会以个别购屋者在主地契上所注册的冻结令(Caveat)作为借口,要求购屋者移除他们所注册的冻结令,否则就不为他们申请分层地契。

事实上,根据1985年分层地契法令第9(2)条文,除了抵押令(Charge)或留置权(Lien)外,冻结令根本不会影响分层地契的申请工作。

面对土地用途不符或分割问题,业主首先当然需寻求州政府或联邦直辖区土地与矿物局协助,其中包括转换土地用途、将两个或超过两个地段合并为一,包括要缴付额外的土地用途转换或合并费用。

若面对建筑物占用政府地或他人土地问题,其一就是向申请拥有这个政府地,或向私人地主收购其地段,再不然就是要求州政府协助征地等。若是有一些地段(作为水沟、河道、小贩中心或是宗教场所保留地)要切割出来并转移给州政府,则必须尽快完成。

总而言之,关于土地或地契相关的任何问题,州政府都可利用其权限来解决这类问题。若有一些建筑物不符入住准证,或出现非法扩建等问题,则可以自行拆除或寻求地方政府执法,再不然就是申请庭令来拆除。

至于主地契上所注册的抵押令,则须要求负责注册抵押令的银行移除,或是要求银行给予通融,让土地局先移除这些抵押令,并在分层地契发出后再注册回到个别单位的分层地契上,才能解决许多建筑物建竣数十年仍未获取分层地契的问题。

当然,最终的问题还是个别楼宇的管理委员,会否采取主动来解决这些问题,包括安排所需要的一切经费。否则,这些问题即使再耗上另一个10年或20年,始终无法取得最圆满的解决方案。

发展商走法律空隙
图继续掌控管理权

发展商为购屋者申请分层地契,无疑是一件好事,但一些发展商却利用该法律空间,继续主宰或控制分层建筑物的管理权,让业主无法早日选出代表本身权益的管理层,当然也不能召开大会成立共管机构(JMB)。

根据1985年分层地契法令第17(3)条文,一旦发出分层地契时,这个分层建筑物之管理机构(MC)即宣告成立。不过,管理机构则须等到当中25%的分层地契转名之后,发展商或原地主才须在一个月内召开首次大会,让所有分层地契割名之业主投选出他们所要的管理委员。

购屋者利益被侵蚀

由于购屋者的心态有别,当中包括一些购屋者不想在短期内再缴付多一次的印花税,使得这个分层地契转名的过程变得相当延缓,有者甚至要耗上两年甚至5年,才达到有25%分层地契转名的门槛。

在这个过渡期内,发展商得以继续主宰整个楼宇的管理权,而2013年分层管理理法令亦赋予发展商,能以管理机构的名义开设银行户头来收费,包括委任本身的职员或第三方服务供应商来管理整座楼宇。

配合新修订的法令,土地局一旦发出分层地契时,就会跟着发出管理机构的证书给发展商。在这种情况下,发展商就能以管理机构的成立证书,以管理机构名义,通过开设银行户头来鸠收管理费。

虽然美其名是交由管理机构来管理,但实质上这个管理机构只由发展商主导,而且在作决策时往往无须征询任何人的意见,导致许多购屋者的利益就变相被侵蚀。

Categories问诊室

路灯坏了,投诉也没用!

2022年04月26日

物管专家:张惟越
物业管理人
佳得楼宇管理有限公司
kenteo.my@gmail.com

 

问:

张先生,您好!

我这里周围的路灯还有公园的灯已经损坏多时,也向管理层投诉过好多次。

但是管理层每次都说会派人去看,之后就没有下文了。

请问我可以怎么做呢?投诉已经超过了半年,但是完全没有改善。灯陆续损坏,管理层无动于衷。

Kuo Ern


答:

Kuo Ern,您好!

情况可能有三:

首先需要先了解您小区的地契类别,是分层地契 (Strata Title)或是个别地契(Individual Title)。

如果该小区是属于个别地契,路灯还有公园的设备都是属于市议会的权限范围,投诉的单位是市议会,而不是管理层了。

如果该小区是属于分层地契的房屋发展规划,共用共有的设备设施都属于私产,并受到联合管理机构(Joint Management Body,简称JMB)或管理机构(Management Corporation,简称MC)的权限范围.

其二,是否已经成立了JMB或MC?

如果您的小区用于民选的管理委员,多次投诉后并未改善,就需要向以下两个机构发出投诉:

1)建筑专员(Commissioner of Building);
2)分层管理仲裁庭(Strata Management Tribunal)

其三,经费。该区的管理费缴交率是否达合理水平,笔者过去的经验发现,很多时候不是管理委员不办事,而是兜里清凉,难办而已。

你也有关于房地产的问题?不管是融资、法律、物管、装修、验屋……都欢迎你电邮到prop@eNanyang.my,由驻站专家为你解答。

 

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    The following terms and conditions apply to your access and the use of this Web Site and the Services provided herein by Nanyang Siang Pau Sdn Bhd. (hereinafter referred to as “eNanyang.my” and “property.eNanyang.my”). By accessing any page of this Web Site and/or using the services, you agree to be bound by these terms and conditions without limitation or qualification. If you do not accept these terms and conditions, please immediately discontinue access to this Web Site and/or use of the services.

    The information, products and services described or offered on this web site are not intended for distribution to, or use by, any person or entity in any jurisdiction or country where such distribution or use would be contrary to law or regulation or which would subject eNanyang.my or its subsidiaries or affiliates to any registration requirements within such jurisdiction or country. The materials, information (including opinions, commentary and recommendations) and functions provided in this web site shall not under any circumstances be considered or construed as an offer or solicitation to sell, buy, give, take, issue, allot or transfer, or as giving of any advice in respect of shares, stocks, bonds, notes, interests, unit trusts, mutual funds or other securities, investments, loans, advances, credits or deposits in any jurisdiction.

    Although this site may contain or provide access or links to information, opinions or recommendations on products and services of property.eNanyang.my or other parties, does not represent that such products or services, opinions or recommendation are suitable for you. All transactions are done at your sole risk and responsibility and in reliance only upon your own judgment and you will make your own independent evaluation of the suitability of the recommendations, products and services obtained, offered or accessed through this web site. Further you should seek professional advice at all times and obtain independent verification of the materials and information provided herein prior to making any investment, business or commercial decision based on any such materials or information. This site shall have no responsibility or liability to you in respect of any opinions or recommendations expressed by it or any other parties on this site. None of this information, opinions or recommendations contained in this site constitutes solicitations or offers by property.eNanyang.my to sell/buy any products or services, provide any investments or financial advice or an invitation to enter into any legally binding contract or arrangement with you. Your eligibility for any particular products or services is subject to the final determination and acceptance by the Companies.

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    Unless otherwise indicated, Malaysian copyright law and international treaties protect all editorial content, graphics, video and soundbites on this site. No part or parts hereof may be reproduced, reused, distributed, adapted, modified, republished, displayed, broadcast, framed, copied or transmitted in any manner or by any means or stored in an information retrieval system without the express permission of property.eNanyang.my who reserve all rights. You also may not without our express prior written content, insert a link to this web site on any other web site, frame or “mirror” any material contained on this web site on any other server. Permission to use Nanyang Siang Pau Sdn Bhd (eNanyang.my and property.eNanyang.my) proprietary content is only granted on a case-by-case basis. Please direct your enquiries to prop@eNanyang.my. The material from this web site is only available for off line informational and non-commercial uses. For such use the content and/or graphics must not be modified in any way. All copyright and other notices on any copy are retained. You may not copy or adapt the HTML code that property.eNanyang.my create to display pages. This also is covered by Nanyang Siang Pau Sdn Bhd copyright. The “look” and “feel” of this web site and its subsites also are trademarks of eNanyang.my. This includes the site colour scheme, button shapes, layout, and all other graphical elements. Any such unauthorised reproduction, retransmission or other copying or modification of any of the contents of property.eNanyang.my web site may be in breach of statutory or common law rights which could be the subject of legal action. property.eNanyang.my disclaims all liability which may arise from any unauthorised reproduction or use of this web site.

    All trademarks, service marks and logos displayed in this web site are the property of property.eNanyang.my and/or their respective third-party proprietors as identified in the web site. Unless the prior written consent of property.eNanyang.my or the relevant third-party proprietor of any trademarks, service marks or logos appearing on the web site has been obtained, no license or right is granted to any party accessing this web site to use, download, reproduce, copy or modify such trademarks, service marks or logos. Similarly, unless the prior written consent of property.eNanyang.my or the relevant proprietor has been obtained, no such trade mark, service mark or logo may be used as a link or to mark any link to the property.eNanyang.my web site or any other site. Just as property.eNanyang.my requires users to respect our copyrights, and those of our affiliates and partners, we respect the copyrights of others. If you believe in good faith that your copyrighted work has been reproduced on our site without authorisation in a way that constitutes copyright infringement, you may notify our designated copyright agent either by mail to Nanyang Siang Pau Sdn Bhd, No. 1, Jalan SS 7/2, 47301 Petaling Jaya, Selangor, Malaysia or by email to prop@eNanyang.my.

    This site is available “as is” and “as available” basis. We do not warrant that this service will be uninterrupted or error-free. There may be delays, omissions, interruptions and inaccuracies in the news, information or other materials available through this web site. We are not responsible for the availability or content of other services that may be linked to this web site. We do not make any warranties, express or implied, including without limitation, those of merchant quality and fitness for a particular purpose, with respect to this web site or any information or services that are available or advertised or sold through this web site. We do not make any representations, nor do we endorse the accuracy, completeness, timeliness or reliability of any advice, opinion, statement or other material or database displayed, uploaded or distributed in this web site or available through links in this web site. We reserve the right to correct any errors or omissions in this web site. Although we intend to take reasonable steps to prevent the introduction of viruses, worms, “Trojan horses” or other destructive materials to this web site, we do not guarantee or warrant that the materials that may be downloaded from this web site do not contain such destructive features. We are not liable for any damages or harm attributable to such features. If you rely on this information and any materials available through this web site, you do so solely at your own risk. Without derogation of the above and/or terms and conditions of the applicable agreements governing all the information and services of the web site, reasonable measures shall be taken by property.eNanyang.my to ensure the accuracy and validity of all information relating to transactions of products and services of related web site.

    property.eNanyang.my shall not be liable for any loss or damages howsoever arising whether in contract, tort, negligence, strict liability or any other basis, including without limitation any damages, loss or expense, direct, indirect, special, or consequential damage, punitive damages or economic loss arising from or in connection with: (1) any access, use or the inability to access or use this website, or reliance on the materials and/or any information in this web site; (2) any system, server or connection failure, error, omission, interruption, delay in transmission, or computer virus; and (3) any use of or access to any other sites linked to this web site. Any hyperlinks to any other websites are not an endorsement or verification of such web sites and such web sites should only be accessed at the user’s own risks. This exclusion clause shall take effect to the fullest extent permitted by law.

    Links from or to the web sites outside of property.eNanyang.my are meant for convenience only. This web site does not investigate, verify, monitor, or endorse the content, accuracy, opinions expressed and other links (if any) provided by such resources as such linked web sites are owned and operated by third parties and are not under the control of property.eNanyang.my. Therefore, we shall not be responsible and makes no warranties in respect of the contents of those web sites, the third parties named therein or their products and services. Furthermore, the links provided in this web site to other shall not be considered an endorsement or verification or approval of such linked web sites of the contents therein. Linking to any other site is at your sole risk and property.eNanyang.my will not be responsible or liable for any damages in connection with linking. It is advisable for you to read the privacy policy statements any web sites which are linked to this web site.

    You will on demand indemnify and keep indemnified property.eNanyang.my from all liabilities, claims, losses and expenses, including any legal fees that may be incurred by property.eNanyang.my in connection with or arising from (1) your use or misuse of this web site and the services provided herein, or (2) your breach of these terms and conditions howsoever occasioned, or (3) any intellectual property right or proprietary right infringement claim made by a third party against property.eNanyang.my in connection with your use of this web site.


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    The failure of property.eNanyang.my to exercise or enforce any right or provision of these terms and conditions shall not constitute a waiver of such right or provision. If any part of these terms and conditions is determined to be invalid or unenforceable pursuant to applicable law, then the invalid and unenforceable provision will be deemed superseded by a valid, enforceable provision that most clearly matches the intent of the original provision and the remainder of the other provisions of the terms and conditions shall continue in full force and effect. All rights not expressly granted herein are reserved.

    These terms and conditions are governed by and are to be construed in accordance with the laws of Malaysia. By accessing this web site and/or using the services provided herein by property.eNanyang.my, you hereby agree to submit to the non-exclusive jurisdiction of the Malaysian courts in Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia in all disputes arising out of or relating to the use of this web site.

    私隐政策声明

      You agree that Nanyang Press Holdings Berhad and its subsidiaries (“Nanyang Group”) may process, use, disclose and/or retain your personal information in accordance with our Privacy Policy as long as necessary for the fulfillment of the Purposes stated herein.

      In order for us to provide our products and/or services to you in the most efficient and effective manner, we need to collect relevant personal information from you. The personal information collected by us may include, but not limited to, the followings: –

      • Name;
      • Address;
      • Phone Number;
      • Fax Number;
      • Date of Birth;
      • Email Address;
      • Gender;
      • Bank Information;
      • Identity Card Number; or
      • Credit Card Information

      Personal Information that you provide to us will be Processed (as defined in PDPA 2010) for the following purposes: –

      • to process your application and/or request for our products and/or services;
      • to complete transactions with you, manage and verify your membership of our customer loyalty scheme where applicable;
      • to provide you with the products and/or services you have requested or subscribed;
      • to understand and analyse our sales, your needs and preferences;
      • to develop, enhance, market and provide products and services to meet your needs;
      • to conduct marketing activities;
      • to direct market to you;
      • to determine how we can improve our services to you;
      • to process exchanges or product returns;
      • to process payments to you;
      • to enable you to participate in promotions and contests;
      • to investigate and resolve any service issues;
      • to keep in contact with you and better manage any business relationship we have with you;
      • to send you updates on our products, news and events, promotions and rewards, special privileges and initiatives of Nanyang Group, our partners and advertisers;
      • for debt collection purposes;
      • to respond to requests or complaints;
      • for future business opportunities and transactions;
      • for audit, compliance and risk management purposes;
      • to meet legal and regulatory requirements; or
      • for all other purposes incidental and associated with any of the above;
      collectively known as the “Purposes”.<

      Nanyang Group will treat all information we hold about you as private and confidential. In order to provide our products and/or services to you, we may need to disclose your personal information to the following third parties: –

      1. law enforcement agencies;
      2. government agencies;
      3. companies or individuals that act as our agents, contractors, service providers and/or professional advisers;
      4. any financial institution and charge or credit card issuing companies with which you have or propose to have dealings;
      5. our business associates in or outside Malaysia;
      6. to share the information with trusted business partners for the provision of their services
      7. any parties to whom you have given us your express or implied consent to disclose; or
      8. to such other parties as may be permitted under the laws of Malaysia.

      You may contact us at the following contact points should you have any queries regarding this Privacy Policy or you wish to have inaccurate information of you to be corrected: –

      Designation: Data Privacy Officer
      Telephone: 03-7872 6921
      Fax: 03-7872 6994
      Email: pdpa@nanyang.com.my
      Address :1, Jalan SS 7/2, 47301 Petaling Jaya, Selangor

      We will keep this Privacy Policy under regular review and we may amend this Privacy Policy from time to time without prior notice. The updated version shall apply and supersede all previous versions. It is advisable that you check this Privacy Policy on a regular basis.

      This notice was updated: 5th February 2014

      © 南洋商报有限公司版权所有 | Copyright Nanyang Siang Pau Sdn. Bhd.(6164-V)

      电邮:prop@eNanyang.my

      地址: No. 1, Jalan SS 7/2, 47301 Petaling Jaya, Selangor Darul Ehsan, Malaysia

      电话: +603-7872 6888

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        Links from or to the web sites outside of property.eNanyang.my are meant for convenience only. This web site does not investigate, verify, monitor, or endorse the content, accuracy, opinions expressed and other links (if any) provided by such resources as such linked web sites are owned and operated by third parties and are not under the control of property.eNanyang.my. Therefore, we shall not be responsible and makes no warranties in respect of the contents of those web sites, the third parties named therein or their products and services. Furthermore, the links provided in this web site to other shall not be considered an endorsement or verification or approval of such linked web sites of the contents therein. Linking to any other site is at your sole risk and property.eNanyang.my will not be responsible or liable for any damages in connection with linking. It is advisable for you to read the privacy policy statements any web sites which are linked to this web site.

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        These terms and conditions are governed by and are to be construed in accordance with the laws of Malaysia. By accessing this web site and/or using the services provided herein by property.eNanyang.my, you hereby agree to submit to the non-exclusive jurisdiction of the Malaysian courts in Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia in all disputes arising out of or relating to the use of this web site.

        私隐政策声明

          You agree that Nanyang Press Holdings Berhad and its subsidiaries (“Nanyang Group”) may process, use, disclose and/or retain your personal information in accordance with our Privacy Policy as long as necessary for the fulfillment of the Purposes stated herein.

          In order for us to provide our products and/or services to you in the most efficient and effective manner, we need to collect relevant personal information from you. The personal information collected by us may include, but not limited to, the followings: –

          • Name;
          • Address;
          • Phone Number;
          • Fax Number;
          • Date of Birth;
          • Email Address;
          • Gender;
          • Bank Information;
          • Identity Card Number; or
          • Credit Card Information

          Personal Information that you provide to us will be Processed (as defined in PDPA 2010) for the following purposes: –

          • to process your application and/or request for our products and/or services;
          • to complete transactions with you, manage and verify your membership of our customer loyalty scheme where applicable;
          • to provide you with the products and/or services you have requested or subscribed;
          • to understand and analyse our sales, your needs and preferences;
          • to develop, enhance, market and provide products and services to meet your needs;
          • to conduct marketing activities;
          • to direct market to you;
          • to determine how we can improve our services to you;
          • to process exchanges or product returns;
          • to process payments to you;
          • to enable you to participate in promotions and contests;
          • to investigate and resolve any service issues;
          • to keep in contact with you and better manage any business relationship we have with you;
          • to send you updates on our products, news and events, promotions and rewards, special privileges and initiatives of Nanyang Group, our partners and advertisers;
          • for debt collection purposes;
          • to respond to requests or complaints;
          • for future business opportunities and transactions;
          • for audit, compliance and risk management purposes;
          • to meet legal and regulatory requirements; or
          • for all other purposes incidental and associated with any of the above;
          collectively known as the “Purposes”.<

          Nanyang Group will treat all information we hold about you as private and confidential. In order to provide our products and/or services to you, we may need to disclose your personal information to the following third parties: –

          1. law enforcement agencies;
          2. government agencies;
          3. companies or individuals that act as our agents, contractors, service providers and/or professional advisers;
          4. any financial institution and charge or credit card issuing companies with which you have or propose to have dealings;
          5. our business associates in or outside Malaysia;
          6. to share the information with trusted business partners for the provision of their services
          7. any parties to whom you have given us your express or implied consent to disclose; or
          8. to such other parties as may be permitted under the laws of Malaysia.

          You may contact us at the following contact points should you have any queries regarding this Privacy Policy or you wish to have inaccurate information of you to be corrected: –

          Designation: Data Privacy Officer
          Telephone: 03-7872 6921
          Fax: 03-7872 6994
          Email: pdpa@nanyang.com.my
          Address :1, Jalan SS 7/2, 47301 Petaling Jaya, Selangor

          We will keep this Privacy Policy under regular review and we may amend this Privacy Policy from time to time without prior notice. The updated version shall apply and supersede all previous versions. It is advisable that you check this Privacy Policy on a regular basis.

          This notice was updated: 5th February 2014

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